Margrethe Vestager, EU’s antitrust chief, hit Qualcomm with a EUR 977 million fine for anticompetitive practices. Crime: contracts with rebates paid to Apple for using Qualcomm chips exclusively and had a dominant position.

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In this article I will review some of the issues engaged and practices suggested by different authors, and then offer the Half-Gains Double-Losses rule to define the capturable value from the economic value to customer and therefore drive a price recommendation for guiding the pricing decision.

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I have seen three or four multinationals, and four to six local suppliers sell the same core product in the same country, at roughly the same price. Because there is so much competition in these markets, customers ask for discounts and drive suppliers to bid against each other to win their business. It is hard to make a stable supplier business in these situations. How can one win? And, what does value-based pricing have to contribute to these markets?

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Because the exchange value approach examines the focal product against its next nearest competitor from the viewpoint of a specific market segment, it creates a focused picture of how an offering is likely to be evaluated by that specific segment. If more segments and competitors are to be considered, more models of the Exchange Value to Customer are needed. This leads to better and more accurate pricing on a segment-by-segment basis.

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Prof. Haskett defines the “wheel of retailing” as the concept where retailers enter the market through low-price strategies to build market share. With the high market share, the retailer would shift its strategy from attracting new customers to increasing profit margins through higher pricing. In implementing the higher pricing strategy, the retailer opens spaced for a new lower price retailer to come into the market as the wheel turns.

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